Married dating inland empire
Intensified excavation in Turkey and restudy of finds from older excavations now affirm a significant Persian presence in Anatolia (Sekunda, 1985, 1988, and 1991).
Much is the indirect evidence of instances of local acculturation (for details see below).
18-22; idem, 2001; both omit Attic black-gloss that figures prominently elsewhere in this period) and Sardis (Ramage, pp. Nonetheless, a variety of evidence attests to the spread of Persian material goods and cultural knowledge to Greece, thanks to trade, booty and diplomatic relations. A portion of the spoils was dedicated to the gods (cf. 109-10, 204-6), but the rest was distributed among participants, ensuring a wide distribution throughout much of the Greek world. (PLATE II; Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University, B8; Thompson; Miller, pp. The extensive diplomatic relations before and after the Persian invasions of Greece also served as a vehicle of information transfer. Rüdiger Schmitt, “Assyria Grammata und ähnliche: Was wussten die Griechen von Keilschrift und Keilsinschriften? CULTURAL RELATIONS WITHIN THE WESTERN EMPIRE The increasing evidence for a Persian presence in Anatolia is accompanied by new and re-evaluated evidence for acculturation in these regions; and also in Thrace and Macedonia, both of which the Persians held for an unknown but comparatively short length of time. E., the local ceramic assemblage moved to a repertoire in which Achaemenid shallow and deep carinated bowls predominated; and at least one other local vessel type, the kantharoid cup, imitates an Iranian form (Dusinberre, 1999, noting a change even in the cooking wares; Paspalas, 2000a). Adaptations of Achaemenid toreutic, usually the addition of handles and a base or foot to a round-bottomed vessel, reflect the modifications required to allow for differences of use relating to differences in social practice. (PLATE VIII, Karls-ruhe, Badiches Landesmuseum, Inv. Some unusual Boeotian sessile kantharoi may also be adaptations. The earliest such halls, the archaic Telesterion at Eleusis (second half of the 6th century) and Persian Influence.
67-68), as well as Gordion in the interior, where trade with Greece is even said to have increased under Persian domain (Voigt, pp. Very few examples of actual Persian imports survive in the Greek world (Miller, pp. Traded goods introduced to Greece included such items as foodstuffs, textiles, glass, slaves, and possibly toreutic. E.), whose wealth far exceeded anything within Greek imagination, became legendary and was probably the single largest intrusion of Persian (and other foreign) goods into Greek society (Herodotus, 9.80-83), but there is reason to suppose that substantial booty was also won at Marathon (490 B. E.) and especially at the battle of the Eurymedon River (466 B. E.), as well as at various other engagements on land and sea throughout much of the 5th century B. Though items in precious metals were doubtless soon melted down, some traces indicate that not all were, or if they were, their unusual qualities were remembered: the most striking instance is a Persian bracteate design that appears as a shield device in Attic red-figured vase-painting about 490-470 B. Whereas goods gained in trade or as booty are already divorced from their cultural context, participants in diplomatic missions were able to penetrate the environment of the upper echelons of the empire. Reyes, “Mesopotamian Contact and Influence in the Greek World 2: Persia, Alexander, and Rome,” in Stephanie Dalley, ed., , Topoi: Orient-Occident, Suppl. ” in Carl Werner Müller, Kurt Siert, and Jürgen Werner, eds., , Proceedings of the Achaemenid History Workshop (London, 1985), Leiden, 1988, pp. Idem, “Achaemenid Settlement in Caria, Lycia, and Greater Phrygia,” in Amélie Kuhrt and Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg, eds., , 1999, pp. Acculturation would seem not to have been imposed from above (though it may have been encouraged), but to have been part of a natural process of gradual re-alignment to the new dominant power in the region. Imperial-style cylinder seals were evidently made at Sardis (Dusinberre, 1997); and the pyramidal seal, though not originating there in its Achaemenid guise as previously thought, was eagerly emulated from an early date (Root; Boardman, 1998; idem, 2000, pp. It is therefore likely that the thin gold bracteates with Persian motifs from the chamber tombs of Sardis were also local products (Curtis, nos. There is little evident response to Achaemenid jewelery, except for the occasional work with cloisonné or “kidney-shaped” animal-protome bracelet, which are perhaps imports (Özgen and Öztürk). Such vessels in Attica include animal-head drink-ing cups and horizontally-fluted beakers as well as deep bowls, ranging in date from the end of the 6th century throughout the 5th century B. Instances of imitation and adaptation first appear in Athens by the end of the 6th century, and are essentially contemporary responses to the first generations of contact with Achaemenid culture in Asia Minor. Later classical (i.e., 4th century) graphic arts reveal that importation of minor arts (textiles, jewelery, seals) also inspired a new interest in monsters, like the griffin in the earlier Greek repertoire. 58) and on a winged griffin pebble mosaic pavement from mid-4th century Sikyon, with its red patches echoing the stylized musculature of Persian animal art (Salzmann, p. The earliest such halls, the archaic Telesterion at Eleusis (second half of the 6th century and its classical successor, as well as the 5th-century civic building at Argos, were more probably the natural result of a cultic or, in the case of Argos, civic need for a large enclosed interior space.
However, archeological and iconographic evidence reveals increasing receptivity to Iranian material culture throughout Anatolia.
Such “Iranizing” both reinforces the evidence for a Persian presence and provides a background for cultural relations with Greece.
A traditional bias in the study of the Greek world has focused attention away from such issues; much evidence doubtless exists, awaiting integration into a broad study of the question throughout the entire region.Textiles and clothing played a role, as did the transmission of images via the minor arts (jewelery and seals).There are indications, too, of emulation of Persian court ceremonial and setting.Anatolia can be regarded as an interculturation zone through which much of Greek perception of Persians was filtered until the conquests of Alexander focused Greek atten-tion more on the Levant and Mesopotamia.The most striking instances of receptivity in the Greek world, as in the North Aegean and Anatolia, are responses to luxury toreutic; the Achaemenid deep and shallow bowls were particularly imitated in metal and ceramic throughout most of the lands in question.